Disc 1: Classical Genetics
Concept 1Children resemble their parents.
(Gregor Mendel: introduction)
Concept 2Genes come in pairs.
(Gregor Mendel: genetic alleles)
Concept 3Genes don't blend.
(Gregor Mendel: inheritance)
Concept 4Some genes are dominant.
(Gregor Mendel: dominance)
Concept 5Genetic inheritance follows rules.
Concept 6Genes are real things.
(rediscovery of Mendel's laws)
Concept 7All cells arise from preexisting cells.
Concept 8Sex cells have one set of chromosomes; body cells have two.
Concept 9Specialized chromosomes determine gender.
Concept 10Chromosomes carry genes.
(fruit fly genetics)
Concept 11Genes get shuffled when chromosomes exchange pieces.
Concept 12Evolution begins with the inheritance of gene variations.
(early plant genetics, evolution)
Concept 13Mendelian laws apply to human beings.
(sexlinked genes, early human genetics)
Concept 14Mendelian genetics cannot fully explain human health and behavior.
Disc 2: Molecules of Genetics
Concept 15DNA and proteins are key molecules of the cell nucleus.
(DNA and amino acid discovery and structure)
Concept 16One gene makes one protein.
(relating genes and protein function)
Concept 17A gene is made of DNA.
(Oswald Avery: DNA as the transforming principle)
Concept 18Bacteria and viruses have DNA too.
(conjugation, Hershey and Chase experiment)
Concept 19The DNA molecule is shaped like a twisted ladder.
(Watson and Crick: 3D structure of DNA)
Concept 20A half DNA ladder is a template for copying the whole.
Concept 21RNA is an intermediary between DNA and proteins.
(RNA transcription, translation)
Concept 22DNA words are three letters long.
(genetic code, translation)
Concept 23A gene is a discrete sequence of DNA nucleotides.
Concept 24The RNA message is sometimes edited.
(RNA splicing, exons, introns)
Concept 25Some viruses store genetic information in RNA.
(retroviruses, reverse transcriptase)
Concept 26RNA was the first genetic molecule.
Concept 27Mutations are changes in genetic information.
Concept 28Some types of mutations are automatically repaired.
Disc 3: Genetic Organization and Control
Concept 29DNA is packaged in a chromosome.
(DNA packaging, chromatin)
Concept 30Higher cells incorporate an ancient chromosome.
Concept 31Some DNA does not encode protein.
(noncoding, "junk" DNA)
Concept 32Some DNA can jump.
(McClintock: "jumping" genes, transposons)
Concept 33Genes can be turned on and off.
(lac operon, control of gene expression)
Concept 34Genes can be moved between species.
(DNA transformation, insulin production in bacteria)
Concept 35DNA responds to signals from outside the cell.
(cell signaling, interferon pathway)
Concept 36Different genes are active in different kinds of cells.
(gene expression, gene chip and DNA array technology)
Concept 37Master genes control basic body plans.
(fruit fly gene expression, development)
Concept 38Development balances cell growth and death.
(cell cycle, cell death)
Concept 39A genome is an entire set of genes.
(Human Genome Project)
Concept 40Living things share common genes.
(DNA homology between species)
Concept 41DNA is only the beginning for understanding the human genome.
(gene targeting, proteomics)